Composed with lyrics in the Bengali language , Bengali music spans a wide variety of styles. The Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent is currently split between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest music in Bengal was influenced by Sanskrit chants, and evolved under the influence of Vaishnav poetry such as the 13th-century Gitagovindam by Jayadeva , whose work continues to be sung in many eastern Hindu temples.
The Middle Ages saw a mixture of Hindu and Islamic trends when the musical tradition was formalized under the patronage of Sultan and Nawabs and the powerful landlords baro bhuiyans. Much of the early canon is devotional, as in the Hindu devotional songs of Ramprasad Sen a bhakta who captures the Bengali ethos in his poetic, rustic, and ecstatic vision of the Hindu goddess of time and destruction in her motherly incarnation, Ma Kali. Another writer of the time was Vidyapati.
Notable in this devotional poetry is an earthiness that does not distinguish between love in its carnal and devotional forms; some see connections between this and Tantra , which originated sometime in the middle of the first millennium CE.
It originated in Bishnupur, Bankura by the court musicians of the Malla Kings. The Bauls meaning "divinely inspired insanity" are a group of mystic minstrels Muslim Sufis and Hindu Baishnos from the Bengal region, who sang primarily in the 17th and 18th centuries. They are thought to have been influenced greatly by the Hindu tantric sect of the Kartabhajas as well as by Muslim Sufi philosophers. Bauls traveled and sang in search of the internal ideal, Moner Manush Man of the Heart or the inner being , and described "superfluous" differences between religions.
Lalon Fakir , alternatively known as Lalon Shah, who lived in the 19th century in and around Kushtia , is considered to be the greatest of all bauls. Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music , they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions.
Some songs mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully; others newly blended elements of different ragas. In , Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was written — ironically — to protest the Partition of Bengal along communal lines: cutting off the Muslim-majority East Bengal from Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional bloodbath.
Tagore saw the partition as a cunning plan to stop the independence movement , and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism. Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha , a Sanskritised form of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas of the Brahmo hymn Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata that Tagore composed.
It was first sung in at a Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress  and was adopted in by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its national anthem. For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung Even illiterate villagers sing his songs".
Most of his musical poems are detailed in two series of books — the Gitabitan that only has the texts of the poems and the Swarabitan that has the poems and their musical notation. However, there exist several poems of his that are set to music, and yet find no mention in either of the above. These are handed down from his students to their students and so on. Another influential body of work is that of Kazi Nazrul Islam , which constitutes what is known as Nazrul geeti. Shyama Sangeet is a genre of Bengali devotional songs dedicated to the Hindu goddess Shyama or Kali which is a form of supreme universal mother-goddess Durga or parvati.
It is also known as Shaktagiti or Durgastuti. Shyama Sangeet appeals to the common man because it is a musical representation of the relationship of eternal and sublime love and care between the mother and her child. It is free of the common rituals of worship and also the esoteric practice of the Tantra.
A notable singer is Pannalal Bhattacharya. Dwijendralal Ray's Dwijendrageeti the Songs of Dwijendralal , which number over , create a separate subgenre of Bengali music. Ray is regarded as one of the most important figures in early modern Bengali literature. Atulprasadi, one of the major lyricist and composers of early-modern period, is also widely popular in Paschimbanga. Atul Prasad is credited with introducing the Thumri style in Bengali music.
His songs centred on three broad subjects: patriotism, devotion and love. Sarkar composed a total of 5, songs including the lyrics and the tune, in a period of eight years from until his death in , making using of eight different languages: Bengali, Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Urdu, Magahi, Maithili and Angika. Numerous other poets and composers had laid the foundation for the rich repertoire of Bengali music in the 19th century and early 20th century.
Krishna Chandra Dey and Pannalal Bhattacharya , were famous for their renditions of devotional songs, while Abbasuddin Ahmed , Kiran Chandra Roy , were stalwarts in singing Bengali folk music. All traditional Bengali music is based on classical music or on its variations. Jeet Ganguly is a modern music composer of Bengali film songs and Bollywood songs.
Bengali rock is a music genre in which the song lyrics are written in the Bengali language. It may refer to:. Western influence has resulted in the emergence of the phenomenon of Bengali bands, both in Dhaka and in Kolkata , as well as songs reflecting the joys and sorrows of the common man, Jibonmukhi Gaan songs from life , which was inspired by Kabir Suman.
Bengali bands became popular with young people in the s, both in India and Bangladesh , and have since become entrenched in modern Bengali culture. Recently, traditional folk-based Bengali songs are also being released by bands. The first known Bengali rock band was Moheener Ghoraguli and also India's first rock band. In modern times, in this type of music distorted electric guitars, bass guitar, and drums are used, and sometimes accompanied with pianos and keyboards and in early times the instruments used in the modern times were also accompanied by saxophone, flute, violin and bass violin.
Bhoomi a Bengali rock band formed in has also been using flute in their music. Bangladeshi rock is the rock music of Bangladesh. It originated in Chittagong with Souls, which was formed in Distortion, electric and bass guitars and drums are used, sometimes accompanied by piano or other keyboard instruments. In the past, it was accompanied by saxophone, flute, violin and bass violin.
Singers like Ajoy Chakraborty and Kaushiki Chakraborty are working to bring back classical raga influence into Bengali music. Bengali bands use a wide variety of styles such as rock , pop , folk , and fusion. Their music is influenced both by popular American music as well as traditional Bengali folk music such as Bhatiali , Bhawaiya , Shyama Sangeet and Baul.
Bangladeshi hip hop is a genre of music and culture that covers a variety of styles of hip hop music developed in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi hip hop is heavily influenced by US hip hop, and started in early From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Bengalis Bengali history. Bengali homeland. Bengali people. Bengali culture. Bengali symbols. Bengalis Bengali Renaissance List of Bengalis. Mythology and folklore. Music and performing arts. Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of West Bengal.
Baul , the mystic minstrel of Bengal. Main article: Bishnupur Gharana. Main article: Baul. Main article: Rabindra Sangeet. Main article: Nazrul Geeti. Main article: Shyama Sangeet. Main article: Dwijendralal Ray. Main article: Atul Prasad Sen. Main article: Prabhat Samgiita. Main article: Rock music of West Bengal. Main article: Rock music of Bangladesh. Main article: Bangladeshi hip hop.
Kolkata: Upama Sengupta; Prima Publications. Tagore-At Home in the World. SAGE Publications. Chatterjee 13 August Published in Banerjee, Jayasri ed. Baroda: Indian Musicological Society, Bangla bands. Ark LRB Souls. Different Touch Obscure Lalon Band. Indian music. Alap Bandish Gat. Sthaayi Antara Sanchaari Aabhog. Vilambit Madhyalaya Drut. Natya Sangeet Baithak Gana. Music of Bollywood. Natya Sangeet Light songs in the play Sugama Sangeetha.